Author Topic: PUERTO RICO  (Read 65828 times)

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #120 on: May 26, 2010, 12:02:51 AM »
THE LAST TAINO 'QUEEN'

Loiza Aldea: Legend of Yuiza. Taino Cacique of Puerto Rico

The Legends of Loiza are many but perhaps the most popular one is about the only female Taino Cacique ( chief) named Yuiza ( Yuisa, Loaiza, Luisa, Loiza). Of all the Taino Chiefs of the Caribbean there were only two who were women, only one in Boriken ( Puerto Rico).

When the Spanish Conquistadores invaded Puerto Rico and enslaved the Taino Indians the indians resisted. They never adapted to slavery, most of the Taino men were killed. Many of the women lived on as wives of the spanish sailors.

Legend has it (that to protect her people) Yuiza became the lover of mulatto conquistador Pedro Mejias and because of this she was killed by other Taino Caciques ( who felt she was a traitor to have been with a spaniard). She actually was a hero and greatly admired by her own tribal people, even today. This may be the legend that gives meaning to the mix in Loiza of black Africans and Taino Indian, or it may, in fact be a historical truth. In actual fact, there are no historical documents to prove this, her marriage with Mejias.

History records show that the colonial government of Puerto Rico, by a crown decree from Spain in the 1600's, was instructed to place runaway slaves from the British colonies in what is today Loiza Aldea. This area was chosen by the Crown because it was the weakest flank of defense of the island, and they hoped that the freed slaves would help defend the island against British invaders. It is said that the majority of these Africans were from Nigeria.

Somewhat inexplicable would be the great quantity of fishermen among the people of Loiza Aldea. Fishing by escaped slaves was considered an aberration because slaves were traditionally taught a fear of the sea as a way to keep them enslaved. Historians argue that the Africans of Loiza developed their fishing skills through direct contact with the Tainos of Puerto Rico. The presence of Amerindian mtDNA in Loiza, supports this hypothesis. Loiza is populated by the largest community of African descendents on the island of Puerto Rico

In later years Inigo Lopez de Cervantes y Loayza, a prestigious Spaniard, had great extensions of land in this region. His second last name could have been used to name this territory.

Foundation: In 1692 Loiza was appointed as an urban section because it had approximately 100 houses and 1,146 inhabitants. In the year 1719 the Spanish government recognized its importance by declaring it an official town. Its founder was Gaspar de Arredondo. It wasn't declared a municipality until August 16, 1970.

The Catholic congregation of Loiza is the oldest established congregation in Puerto Rico. The church has been rebuilt, but is still significantly old.

" . . The legend is that the name Loiza was that of a Taino woman, Chief Loiza or Yuisa, who governed a territory called Jaymanio in the margins of the Cayrabon river now named the Rio Grande de Loiza."

. . . let us stick to the legend of this stately Taino Chief, Yuiza. In 1972 an artist from Loiza had a vision in which Loaiza came to her. She ( Lolita Cuevas) painted her vision in the dark at 2 am. Loaiza spoke to her and asked her to paint her but said she would not return. This drawing now hangs in City Hall in Loiza.


Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #121 on: May 26, 2010, 10:19:29 PM »
Jerry Medina y su grupo tema: Goza Conmigo

JERRY MEDINA y su grupo en el piano Eric Figueroa, congas Paoli Mejías, drums Tony Escapa, bongos Javier Oquendo, batas y coros José Ramírez, bajo Ramón

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HpBViUYKTg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBgSc3-6a5I&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQ6r9ljVO6M&feature=related
« Last Edit: May 26, 2010, 10:25:01 PM by Marlene »

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #122 on: May 27, 2010, 08:59:41 PM »
Fotos!!

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #123 on: May 27, 2010, 09:00:26 PM »
Mas!!

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #124 on: May 27, 2010, 09:01:06 PM »
Mas!!

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #125 on: May 27, 2010, 09:01:52 PM »
Mas!!
« Last Edit: May 27, 2010, 09:09:07 PM by Marlene »

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #126 on: May 28, 2010, 12:14:58 AM »
Issac Delgado Live at the Berklee Performance Center

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HBArcSw5BDg

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #127 on: May 28, 2010, 10:46:54 PM »
Bailes de Salon (Danza)

Danza, a musical form created in Puerto Rico, is one of our "Bailes de Salon" which flourished in the second part of the 19th century in the salons of elite, agricultural landowners (hacendados) with cultural ties to Spain, and was later adopted by all, merchants and peasants alike.

Notes: This is a very sentimental photo taken during the very early days of PRFDance's birth (1997). Enjoy photos of the performing company we grew up to be, thanks to many Maestros from Boriken who trained us well (see Director's Bio, last entry on wall):


Plena

Plena, born in the working class barrios of Ponce about 100 years ago, was known as "el periodico cantado" (the sung newspaper) because it contained stories about the everyday life of the people.

Notes: PRFDance was founded in 1997, and is today the premier Puerto Rican performing company in the State of Texas, thanks to many Maestros from Boriken who trained us well (see Director's Bio, last entry on wall). Enjoy more photos of the performing company we have grown up to become:

http://www.prfdance.org/celebrando2007.show.htm

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #128 on: May 28, 2010, 10:53:37 PM »
Taino - Boriken's Primera Raiz

We, the Taino are still here! Many know that the first "Puerto Rican" born on our beautiful island was a baby of a Taina mother and Spaniard father.

Did you know that by 1514, 40% of officially recognized wives of the
Spaniards were Taina? That Taino communities survived the Conquest by escaping high into the central mountains? In 1800, thousands of full-blooded Tainos who still lived in the mountains disappeared from record when the Indian category was dropped from the census. Because of this history, it's not surprising to learn that 61% of all Puerto Ricans carry Amerindian Mitochondrial DNA from their maternal lines (NSF Research, J.C. Martinez Cruzado).

Taino traditions are a permanent part of Puerto Rico's heritage thanks to Taina mothers who survived and handed traditions down from mother to child: vocabulary, music, customs, culture, beliefs and the nature of our people.

We thank Cacike Caciba Opil of the Concilio Taino Guatu-Ma-cu A Boriken (conciliotainopr.org) for the ongoing teachings of our native traditions.

Voices of America - Written report (enjoy photos):
http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/american-life/people/Decimated-Tribe-Seeks-Recognition-Through-2010-Census-89927137.html

"Proud of our Taino Blood! From the roots of this noble tree, the next generation grows!" -- Tekina-eirú

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #129 on: May 28, 2010, 10:57:02 PM »
Bomba, a musical expression created in Puerto Rico, featuring authentic barril drums and improvised dance.

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #130 on: May 29, 2010, 02:44:51 PM »
Eugenio Maria de Hostos

Educator - Writer – Patriot

By Aurora Flores,
great grand-niece of Hostos

Remarks written & delivered at the 30th
Anniversary Celebration of the Founding of
Hostos Community College: March 25, 2006

“Ideals that take days to conceive, mature over centuries of struggles.” wrote Eugenio Maria de Hostos in the late 1800s. One of the most distinguished and illustrious men in Puerto Rico’s history, Hostos was known worldwide as educator, humanist, abolitionist, feminist, philosopher, writer, politician and above all an early advocate of self-government for Puerto Rico. A Renaissance man of the Caribbean with a clear, liberal, international and pragmatic mindset, he educated an entire continent and was called “Citizen of America.” He advocated for a Federation of the Antilles embracing Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic and devoted his life to seeking the political independence of Cuba and Puerto Rico.

His many essays, articles and books reflect his philosophy on social justice, political science, virtues and moralities for social reform and advocacy. He was an important advocate for the abolition of slavery, the rights of Chinese laborers in Peru and the higher education of women in law and science in Chile playing an important role in reforming the educational system for women throughout Latin America. He established the first teacher’s colleges and advanced methods for teaching throughout the Caribbean, in particular the Dominican Republic. He was known throughout Latin America as a publicist of civic reforms, a rationalist in ethics who believed that “to be civilized and to be moral is the same thing.” And as a writer of graceful and didactic prose.

Eugenio Maria de Hostos y Bonilla was born on January 11, 1839 in the village of Rio Cañas near Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. He was the first of the Ostos family originating from Spain and settling in Cuba to be born in Puerto Rico. First educated in San Juan, he was sent to Spain at 13 to study at the Institute of Higher Education in Bilbao earning a law degree at the University of Madrid. As a student in Madrid, he became interested in politics. While studying law, he wrote newspaper and magazine articles on the need for autonomy for the Spanish West Indies.

He distinguished himself as an essayist and orator in the movement to abolish the slave trade with Africa and to liberalize colonial rule. Already he had conceived the hope that Spain’s territories in the Antilles might be confederated as an independent republic.

He joined the Spanish Republicans because their leadership promised autonomy for Cuba and P.R. To express that hope, he wrote the first of more than 50 books, the allegorical novella La Peregrinación de Bayoán in 1863, describing the voyage to Spain by the Arawak leaders of Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic advocating independence and self governing autonomy for these island nations. But three years later in 1869, when the republicans triumphed over the monarchy, Hostos’ hope for peaceful change were dashed when the new Spanish constitution left colonialism firmly in place. He refused the post of Governor of Barcelona when he realized he was betrayed and headed for New York.

Once in N.Y., Hostos joined the Puerto Rican Section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party organized by Cuban poet and patriot Jose Marti and established himself as editor of a La Revolución, the journal of the Cuban revolutionary movement. He was joined here and his ideas were embraced by Ramon Betances, leader of the 1868 Grito de Lares uprising along with Segundo Ruiz Belvis. Here Hostos advanced his formula for an independent Antillean Confederation with a base in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica.

However he was also disappointed that in Cuba and P.R. there were many who wanted their independence from Spain but who did not agree with the revolutionary ideals. Instead, they preferred to be annexed by, be a part of, the U.S. Three years later, he embarked on a tour of South America to promote the ideals of a united Antellano Federation, recruit support and raise funds for this liberation movement. He traveled within the U.S. France, Colombia, Panama, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Cuba and P.R. And although he had come from a family of privilege, wherever he traveled, he lived humbly among the people and the leaders that he was cultivating.

In Peru, he helped to develop the country’s educational system and spoke out against the harsh treatment and exploitation of the Chinese immigrants.

In Chile, he championed the cause of women’s education, particularly in law and medicine.

Hostos arrived in Chile in December of 1871. As professor at the University of Chile he gave a speech titled “The Scientific Education of Women” proposing that the government permit women into their colleges.

He immediately began a controversial campaign of lectures and essays defending the women’s right to education observing and comparing the plight of women as: “Es una planta que vegeta, sin una conciencia que conoce su existencia,” “She is like a plant that vegetates without any consciousness of her existence.” Hostos turned it around on the men claiming that, “If women are charged with the upbringing of our children, how can they teach those children and develop their intellectual and mental capacities if she does not know how to direct her own life.’”

Hostos went on to condemn the educational system in Chile with respect to women by pointing out the following:

They have taught her to read so that she can read “novellas.” Sometimes she reads novels of religion, sometimes she seeks refuge in the religion of the novel; she has been taught to write so that she may write the novel of her love in the stereotypes from the most stupid teachers of love who happen to be at hand; she has been taught to pray so that her lips may mechanically evoke what her conscious mind fails to understand; she has been taught to work so that she may do the same work mechanically every day; she has been taught to sing in order to enhance her attractiveness; she has been taught to play the piano all her life, to accompany the dancing of those who are fit only to dance; she has been taught to mistreat a foreign tongue so that she can forget or abuse her own; she has been taught to draw so that she can embroider to perfection or occupy her periods of boredom with the ideal of a man whom she cannot find around her…

Woman has been reduced to the level of a two-legged animal that procreates its kind, that feeds its offspring from its breasts, that sacrifices to the life of the species its own individual existence.”

He went on to reason with the male educators saying: The only thing needed for education is intellectual capacity and the exercise of reason: Reason has no gender, no sex, “La razon no tiene sexo.” It is the same faculty in men as in women operating and functioning precisely in the same manner. “Y es la misma facultad con sus mismas operaciones y funciones en el hombre y en la mujer.” If a man can recognize truth through the use of reason, so can a woman. In short, if a man is capable of higher learning, so is a woman.

Soon after, Chile allowed women to enter its college educational system.

In Argentina, he campaigned for the construction of the first trans-Andean railroad that, when built, was named in his honor. In Brazil, as correspondent for the Buenos Aires journal La Nación, he wrote a series of articles on the country’s natural history. After a brief return to New York in 1874, Hostos continued his travels, first to the Dominican Republic where he founded the first college for teachers implementing advanced teaching techniques before going to Venezuela where in 1877 he married the Cuban-born Belinda de Ayala. Their maid of honor was the renowned P.R. poet Lola Rodriguez de Tio.

Hostos’ career as an educator began in 1879 when he established himself in the Dominican Republic as founder and director of that country’s first teacher’s college. First son Eugenio Carlos was born during this year. For the following nine years Hostos worked intensively to reform the educational system in D. R. often undertaking on his own the writing of the textbooks to be used. By 1881, his first daughter Luisa Amelia was born followed by the birth of his second son, Bayoan Lautaro in 1882. In 1887 Adolfo José was born as the first graduates of the Dominican Teacher’s College are inducted as alumnus of the Instituto de Señoritas led by Salome Ureña de Henriquez. The following year, Hostos creates the Night School for the Working class: La Escuela Nocturna para la clase obrera. He writes his classic book, Moral Social.

In 1888, at the request of President Balmaceda of Chile, Hostos moved to Santiago along with his wife, his children, Eugenio Carlos, Luisa Amelia, Bayoan and Adolfo who were born in D.R. He traveled to Chile via Panama and Curazao. In Chile, Hostos became the Chair in Constitutional Law at the University and undertook another nationwide project in pedagogical reform. His pilot school became one of the leading educational centers in Latin America. While in Chile, his son Filipo Luis Duarte was born in 1890.

Hostos returned to Cuba in 1895 to take part in the renewed struggle for independence. In 1898, he returned to New York and founded the Liga de Patriotas where he was named president. He then traveled with a delegation of Puerto Rican leaders including Julio J. Henna, Manuel Zeno Gandia and Rafael del Valle to Washington, D.C. to argue with President McKinley for the independence of Puerto Rico. Again, Hostos’ hopes were dashed as the United States government decided to retain Puerto Rico as a territory.

He returns to P.R. just long enough to establish “el Instituto Municipal” in Mayaguez.

Shortly thereafter, the Dominican government called him to reorganize the public education system of the island.

Hostos returned to the Dominican Republic in 1900 to serve as director of the Central College and General Inspector of public education. He continued to play a major role in reorganizing the educational and railroad systems until his death on August 11, 1903 at his home in Las Marias, Santo Domingo where he remains buried in the Panteon Nacional until, as he requested, Puerto Rico is independent.

He wrote his own epitaph that says: “I wish that they will say that in that island Puerto Rico a man was born who loved truth, desired justice and worked for the good of mankind.”

In 1938, the 8th international Conference of America celebrated in Lima, Peru posthumously paid tribute to Hostos and declared him ”Citizen of the Americas and Teacher of the Youth.” Puerto Rico declared his birthday an official holiday. There is a monument honoring Hostos in Spain. In P.R. there are two monuments dedicated to Hostos, one in his native city of Mayaguez, created by renowned sculptor Tomas Batista and another in San Juan created by Jose Buscaglia Guillermety. In NY there is the Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community college of the City University of NY.

Hostos’ voluminous body of writings includes critical studies of Hamlet; Romeo and Juliet; An Historical Description of Puerto Rico; Lessons in Constitutional Law; Reform of Legal Education; Science of Pedagogy; Administrative Decentralization; Project for a General Law of Public Education; The Scientific Education of Women; Sociology and Social Ethics.

Heroe of Liberty: Reason has no gender. It is the same faculty in women as in men.

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #131 on: June 02, 2010, 09:07:00 PM »
Aurora Flores:
Currently the founder & bandleader of Zon del Barrio: Music from the Streets of Latin N.Y. an intergenerational band featuring two female singers & one male, our own built-in arranger & composer w/ a diverse repertoire of music that reflects the diversity of who we are: Zon del Barrio is a play on the worlds "son" found in Cuba, P.R. & D. R. and barrio "zones" where people of color work, struggle & play just as hard...¡A GoSalza!

http://www.zondelbarrio.com/

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #132 on: June 03, 2010, 10:42:57 AM »

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #133 on: June 03, 2010, 10:49:30 AM »

Offline Marlene

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Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #134 on: June 03, 2010, 02:39:41 PM »

Jackson Heights Life

Re: PUERTO RICO
« Reply #134 on: June 03, 2010, 02:39:41 PM »